The fastest screening tool for peripheral arterial disease

It is everything that you are looking for in a medical device – a fast, simple, accurate and objective screening tool for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease.

Primary health care

General practice

Primary care physicians are in a pivotal position within the healthcare system to improve the standard of care for patients with PAD. This improvement can be achieved if physicians follow guidelines and measure ABI on all patients in cardiovascular risk group, regardless of presenting symptoms.

According to 2017 ESC Guidelines, individuals who are at risk for PAD:
-Men and women over 50 years of age with family history for PAD
-Men and women younger then 65 years of age with cardiovascular risk factors (hypertensive, overweight, diabetic, smokers)
-Everyone over 65 years of age.

ACC/AHA 2005 Practice guidelines for the management of patients with PAD

2011 ACCF/AHA Focused update of the guideline for the management of patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (Updating the 2005 guideline)

TASC II – Inter-society consensus for the management of PAD

Critical issues in Peripheral Arterial Disease detection and management

Prognostic value of a low post-exercise Ankle-Brachial Index as assessed by primary care physicians

Interobserver variability of Ankle–Brachial Index measurements at rest and post exercise in patients with intermittent claudication

Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for Peripheral Arterial Disease decades after pregnancy

Secondary health care


Measurements of the Ankle-Brachial Index may improve the accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction beyond the Framingham Risk Score. Furthermore, ABI is valuable for assessing the ability of rehabilitation after cardiac procedures or treatment.

Ankle Brachial Index combined with Framingham risk score to predict cardiovascular events and mortality: a meta-analysis

Measurement and Interpretation of the Ankle-Brachial Index: A scientific statement from the American heart association


A screening ABI should be considered in diabetic patients above 50 years of age who have other PAD risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or duration of diabetes for 10 years). If ABI is normal, the measurement has to be repeater every five years.

Specific guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease in a patient with diabetes and ulceration of the foot

An analysis of the relationship between Ankle–Brachial Index and estimated glomerular filtration rate in type 2 diabetes


ABI is used as screening tool to determine the possible presence of PAD and therefore indicate further management. It is especially useful in post-operative care of revascularized patients.

ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of Peripheral Artery Diseases

Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease


Kidney disease is an independent risk factor for the development of PAD. According to KDOQI guidelines, all patients should be evaluated for PAD at the time of dialysis. The disease in those patients progresses faster than in patients without kidney disease.

Peripheral Arterial Disease: A guide for nephrologists

Subclinical Peripheral Arterial Disease in patients with chronic kidney disease – Prevalence and related risk factors

Dermatology/Compression therapy and wound care

Ankle-Brachial Index should be the first measurement in wound care, to predict the heal-ability of lower leg wounds. It rules out arterial condition and therefore determine safe level of compression.

ABC of wound healing – Venous and arterial leg ulcers

Specific guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease in a patient with diabetes and ulceration of the foot

Vascular surgery

Measurements of the Ankle-Brachial Index contribute to correct indications for surgical therapy and are mandatory in the follow up of patients after surgical treatment.

Asymptomatic low Ankle-Brachial Index in vascular surgery patients: A predictor of perioperative myocardial damage

Vascular hospitalization rates and costs in patients with Peripheral Artery Disease in the United States


Measurements of the Ankle-Brachial Index are essential in differential diagnosis of lower extremity pain. In addition, a recurrent ischemia associated with PAD may cause muscle denervation, which may be one of the mechanisms responsible for decreased exercise performance in these patients.

Muscle denervation in Peripheral Arterial Disease

Concomitant neurological and orthopedic diseases in the presence of Peripheral Arterial Disease: a prospective study